The aim of this qualitative study was to assess toilet use among underserved communities in Uttar Pradesh. Toward this end, three geographically dispersed districts - Hapur, Sonabhadra and Shravasti, with varying levels of development and toilet use behaviour were purposively selected. The study found barriers and facilitators to the adoption and use of toilets among women and men in the villages of three districts. For example, women use toilets because of safety, privacy, convenience and time saved. Men, on the other hand, use toilets if they have used them before or as a marker of social status. Old men and children prefer not to use them.